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Causes of Brain Cancer You Need to Beware of

Causes of Brain Cancer You Need to Beware of

The cause of brain cancer has yet to be ascertained. But according to various studies, several factors can increase a person's risk for developing brain cancer, including heredity (genetic), environmental pollution, exposure to radiation, to smoking.

Tumors can be categorized into 2 types, namely benign and malignant. All kinds of tumors that are malignant are called cancer, including brain cancer. Brain cancer occurs due to genetic changes in brain cells, so the cells grow out of control and damage the surrounding tissue. In addition to proliferating, these brain cells also do not function normally.

According to its origin, brain cancer can be classified into two, namely:

Primary brain cancer

This is a brain cancer originating from the brain itself. There are many types of primary brain cancer, and each type is named based on the part of the brain or the kind of brain cells that experience malignancy. The most common types of primary brain cancer are glioma (cancer originating from glial cells in the brain) and medulloblastoma (brain cancer arising from the cerebellum).

Secondary brain cancer

Another name is metastatic brain cancer, which is brain cancer that arises due to the spread of cancer cells from other organs or body parts. Some types of cancer that quite often spread to the brain and cause secondary brain cancer are breast cancer, lung cancer, skin cancer, kidney cancer, and colon cancer.

Brain Cancer Causes in General

As explained above, the cause of brain cancer is not yet known with certainty. However, several factors are thought to increase a person's risk of developing this disease, namely:

1. Genetic factors

Some cases of brain tumors occur in people who have a family history of cancer. Someone who has a family history of genetic diseases, such as Gorlin's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, Li-Fraumani's syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or neurofibromatosis, is also said to be more at risk of developing brain cancer.

2. Radiation display

Radiation exposure that can increase the risk of brain cancer can come from nuclear radiation, atomic bomb blasts, or radiotherapy to treat disease. People who are exposed to high doses of radiation or for long periods, both on the head and other body parts, are more at risk of getting cancer, including brain cancer.

Tumor and cancer cells due to high radiation exposure generally only develop around 10-15 years after exposure. While exposure to radiation from radiological examinations, such as CT scans and X-rays, or HP radiation, so far, it is still considered not high enough to cause brain cancer.

3. Environmental pollution

Exposure to certain chemicals in the long term can increase the risk of cancer, including brain cancer. These chemicals include pesticides, herbicides (weed killers), vinyl chloride in plastic products, tin, and chemicals found in rubber, fuel, and textiles.

Those who are at risk of being exposed to these chemicals are farmers, oil refinery workers, as well as plastic, rubber, and textile industry employees.

4. Smoking habits

The chemicals contained in cigarettes can damage body cells, which can then cause lung cancer and increase the risk of other diseases, including brain cancer.

5. Viral infections

Viral infections can cause damage to cell DNA, potentially causing cells to turn into cancer. This can also occur in brain cells. Some types of viruses associated with brain cancer are HIV, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

6. Age and gender

From several medical data, brain cancer is more commonly found in children and the elderly. For its own type, women are said to be more at risk of developing meningioma type brain cancer, whereas medulloblastoma type brain cancer is more commonly found in children.

The risk of brain cancer due to hereditary factors cannot be prevented. While exposure to radiation, chemicals, and smoking habits are factors that can be avoided to reduce the risk of brain cancer.

Keep in mind, the above risk factors are not absolutely a cause of brain cancer. If someone has one or several risk factors, not necessarily, he will definitely get brain cancer. These factors only increase the risk of brain cancer.

Conversely, brain cancer can occur even without the presence of risk factors. Therefore, further research is still needed to study the causes of brain cancer and its risk factors.

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